A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor, landslides, or volcanic activity. In the deep ocean, the tsunami wave may be only a few inches high. The tsunamis wave may come gently ashore or may increase in height to become a fast moving wall of turbulent water several meters high.

Although a tsunami cannot be prevented, the impact of a tsunami can be mitigated through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective response.

National Oceanic and Atmpospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the United States, and a leadership role in tsunami observation and research.

See the NOA website for more tsunami information.


With clear, concise language, Seismic Loads illustrates key concepts and guides structural engineers require in applying the most current thinking in this rapidly changing discipline to the design of new structures. The standard includes provisions for seismic design of structures, as well as the provisions for determining live, flood, wind, snow, and atmospheric ice loads.

Appendix M

Appendix M - Tsunami-generated flood hazard, International Building Code, 2012, International Code Council