The Art of Detailing
is more to design than calculating the forces in the structural
members and proportioning the sections. Good structural analysis
and design must be complemented with appropriate reinforcement detailing
to insure that the structure as a whole behaves as it is modeled
by the designer. On the other hand, a poorly detailed structure
may suffer from unsightly cracks, excessive deflection or even collapse.
Good details and bar arrangements should be practical, buildable,
cost-effective and suitable for their intended use.
Reinforcement is provided mainly to resist internal tensile forces
calculated from analysis. Also, reinforcement is provided in compression
zones to increase the compression capacity, enhance ductility, reduce
long term deflections or increase the flexural capacity for beams.
The ACI 318 Building Code provides provisions for reinforcement
detailing to prevent excessive crack width under service conditions.
In addition, reinforcement is required to prevent excessive cracking
resulting from shrinkage or temperature changes in restrained structural
elements. Lateral reinforcement (stirrups, ties and hoops) are used
to provide resistance to principal tensile stresses resulting from
shear. Lateral reinforcement in highly stressed areas of compression
zones of columns beams and joint provides confinement. This is important
especially in structures located in high seismic risk zones.
It is important to provide the adequate area of reinforcement required
to resist internal tensile or compression forces required to attain
the design section strength. The provided area of reinforcement
is not fully effective unless it is fully developed. The fundamental
requirement for development of reinforcing bars is that a reinforcing
bar must be embedded in concrete a sufficient distance on each side
of the critical section to develop the peak tension or compression
force in the bar at the section. The reinforcement may be developed
by embedment length, hooks, mechanical anchorage devices, headed
deformed reinforcement, or a combination of these methods.
In addition to providing the sufficient areas of reinforcement
and the required development lengths, good detailing should be done
considering the overall structural integrity. The overall ability
of a reinforced concrete structure to withstand abnormal loads resulting
from unforeseen events, which cannot be considered in design, can
be enhanced substantially by providing relatively minor changes
in the detailing of the reinforcement. The American Concrete Institute’s
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI
318-08) Section 7.13 (and others) set forth provisions for structural
integrity reinforcement intended to enhance continuity, improve
the redundancy and ductility of structures. This is achieved by
providing, as a minimum, some continuity reinforcement or tie between
horizontal framing members.
318-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and
This most recent edition of the ACI Building Code. Includes
revisions to the 2005 edition and provides minimum requirements
for the design and construction of reinforced concrete structural
elements. Written in such format that it may be adopted by reference
in a general building code. Published by American Concrete Institute.
Detailing of Concrete Buildings (SP382)
This publication contains a comprehensive summary of the seismic
detailing requirements contained in Building Code Requirements
for Structural Concrete (318-05) and Commentary (318R-05),
which is adopted by reference in the 2006 International
Building Code. A supplemental CD is included with reinforcement
details for beams, columns, two-way slabs, walls and foundations.
Detailing Manual-2004 (SP-66) (LT185)
This comprehensive detailing manual is broken down into three
sections: (1) a standard on details and detailing of concrete
reinforcement, (2) a manual of engineering and placing drawings,
and (3) a supplementary section containing supporting reference
data. Published by ACI.
Reinforcing Bars - 8th Edition (LT193)
Upon reading this reprinted article and completing the quiz
to earn CEU credits, the reader will learn how to minimize
the likelihood of cracking and improve the durability of mass
concrete by optimizing the mix design, as well as predicting,
monitoring, and controlling concrete temperatures.
Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete with Design Applications (EB708)
The tenth edition of this classic PCA resource has been updated
to reflect code changes introduced in the latest version of
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,
ACI 318-08. These notes will help users apply code provisions
related to the design and construction of concrete structures.
Each chapter of the manual starts with a description of the
latest code changes. Emphasis is placed on “how-to-use”
the code. Numerous design examples illustrate application
of the code provisions.
Design: Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and
The publication presents timesaving analysis, design, and
detailing methods for reinforced concrete buildings, particularly
economical for buildings with one- to seven-stories. Revised
and updated to ACI 318-02, it incorporates loading calculations
and seismic design provisions in accordance with IBC 2003
and ASCE 7-02.
Integrity Requirements for Concrete Buildings (IS184)
This bulletin is a part of a series published by the Portland
Cement Association and intended to cover different aspects
of concrete design. The bulletin discusses the background
and introduces the ACI 318-05 Code requirements for structural
and Splicing of Flexural Reinforcement Based on ACI 318-08
(RP446) Upon reading this reprinted article from Structural
Engineer and completing the quiz to earn CEU credits,
the reader should be able to understand and learn the ACI
318-08 Code provisions for development of flexural reinforcement.
Integrity Requirements for Concrete Buildings (RP436)
Upon reading this reprinted article from Structural Engineer
and completing the quiz to earn CEU credits, the reader will
learn, the reader should be able to understand the structural
integrity requirements for reinforced concrete buildings in
accordance with the American Concrete Institute’s Building
Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05).
The reader will learn the detailing provisions to achieve
structural integrity for cast-in-place joists, beams, two-way
slabs, lift slabs, and precast concrete construction.
Engineering Guide to: Concrete Buildings and Progressive Collapse
The response of reinforced concrete buildings to blast load
is discussed. The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
progressive collapse analysis and guidelines are introduced.
The results of a PCA study on applying the GSA method of analysis
to concrete moment resisting frame buildings is presented.
The publication also includes a brief introduction to blast
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